Our Response To The Giving Of The Torah
Two Approaches to the Giving of the Torah
The Torah introduces the Ten Commandments with the verse, 
"And G-d spoke all these words, saying...."
Our Sages  explain the word leimor ("saying") as indicating
that the Jews responded to G-d after each commandment. 
As to the actual response, there is a difference of opinion among
our Sages: Rabbi Yishmael states that they answered "Yes" to the
positive commandments and "No" to the negative ones; Rabbi Akiva
maintains that they answered "Yes" to all the commandments,
signifying their willingness to fulfill G-d's will in every
This divergence can be understood by analyzing another difference
of opinion between these two Sages regarding a second verse 
which describes the revelation at Sinai:
"All the people saw the sounds and the flames." Rabbi Yishmael
 maintains that the people "saw what is usually seen, and
heard what is usually heard."
In his reading, the verb "saw" does not apply to the
object "sounds" which follows it immediately, but only to
"flames" which is the second object of the verb in the verse.
Rabbi Akiva, however, maintains that the verb's direct object is
also its semantic object.
In his reading, the Giving of the Torah brought about an upheaval
within the natural order; the people "heard what is usually seen
and saw what is usually heard." They saw the sounds and heard the
The Contrast Between Our Senses
What is the difference between seeing and hearing? Witnessing
an event makes such a powerful impression on a person that he
cannot be persuaded that it has not taken place. For this reason
our Sages maintain that a person who has seen an event cannot
objectively consider a defendant's rights; hence the rule 
that "a witness cannot serve as a judge."
Sound, by contrast, does not make as powerful an impression:
a person who hears an idea is still capable of imagining a
Another difference between the two:
Vision is a very concrete faculty, applying only to physical
objects. Hearing is less tightly associated with a physical
signal. The sense of hearing thus enables us to connect with
abstract, even spiritual, concepts.
These two differences are interrelated.
Because man is a physical being, physical things make a deep
impression upon him and are therefore perceived through the more
concrete sense of sight.
Intellectual and spiritual constructs, being further removed from
the person, are perceived by hearing, a faculty which makes a
less powerful impression, but is capable of relating to
The Purpose of the Giving of the Torah
In light of this, we can understand Rabbi Akiva's statement that
at the Giving of the Torah, the Jews "heard what is usually seen
and saw what is usually heard."
In his view, the purpose of the Torah is to transform a person's
frame of reference, to draw him away from involvement in worldly
matters and connect him to the spiritual.
In his reading of the verse, this is what the Jews actually
experienced at Sinai.
Their senses were reoriented and they "saw" the spiritual and
"heard" the material.
This meant that what made a deep and lasting impression upon
them, was the spiritual, that which is usually "heard". At that
time, they related only abstractly to material things, merely
"hearing" that which is ordinarily "seen".
Rabbi Yishmael conceives of the Torah differently, seeing as its
goal that G-dliness permeate nature.
In his view, the Torah is not intended to make man rise above
the framework of worldly experience, but to make that experience,
intact within its own worldly frame of reference, reflect
G-dliness. Therefore, he maintains, the Jews "saw what is usually
seen and heard what is usually heard."
This was not, however, an ordinary form of seeing and hearing.
At Sinai, the Jews were able to see and hear G-dliness permeating
the natural order.
Differences in Approach
These two perspectives flow from basic differences between the
Rabbi Yishmael was a Kohen; according to some views, even a High
Priest.  Because his world was one of holiness, he perceived
his challenge in the service of G-d to be the extending of the
borders of holiness, drawing G-dliness into the framework of
Rabbi Akiva, by contrast, stemmed from a family of converts 
and did not himself begin studying Torah until he was forty. 
His approach to divine service reflected the reality of the baal
teshuvah, who rises above himself and his previous experiences
and turns to G-d.
Perceiving the Inner Truth
Rabbi Akiva's drive to transcend his immediate circumstances may
be seen in the following narrative. 
Some time after the Second Destruction, he and four other Sages
were making their way up to Jerusalem. As they cleared the summit
of Mt. Scopus, the desolate sight of the Holy City met their
eyes, and they rent their garments.
Approaching the Temple Mount they saw a fox prowling through the
ruins of the Holy of Holies. Four scholars wept; Rabbi Akiva
alone radiated joy.
The Sages asked him, "Why are you joyful?" Whereupon he asked
them, "And why do you weep?" They answered: "In the very
sanctuary which was permitted to the High Priest alone, foxes
now roam - then shall we not weep?"
Replied Rabbi Akiva: "And for that very reason I laugh....
In the Book of Michah it is written,  'Therefore shall Zion
for your sake be plowed like a field.' In the Book of Zechariah
it is written,  'Old men and old women shall yet sit in the
streets of Jerusalem.'
Until the first prophecy was fulfilled, I may have doubted the
truth of the second. Now that the first prophecy has indeed been
fulfilled, we may depend without a doubt that the second will
also come true!"
Rabbi Akiva was able to look beyond the immediate situation
and to perceive the inner G-dly truth at its core.
This was characteristic of the manner in which he sought to rise
above the limits of his worldly experience.
Yes and No, and an All-Encompassing Yes
In light of this, we can explain the difference between Rabbi
Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva regarding the response of the Jewish
people to each of the Ten Commandments. 
The observance of mitzvos involves two elements: First, the
undifferentiated desire to fulfill G-d's will, and second, the
expression of this desire in terms of a particular mitzvah. 
Rabbi Yishmael maintains that in answering "Yes" to the positive
commandments and "No" to the negative commandments, the Jewish
people were demonstrating their desire to fulfill G-d's will in
terms relating to the definition of those particular mitzvos.
Since, in his view, the goal of the Torah is to permeate the
world with G-dliness, Rabbi Yishmael understood the Jewish
people's service of G-d as reflecting the way in which mitzvos
are expressed within the natural order.
Because Rabbi Akiva sees the observance of the mitzvos as an
expression of an all-encompassing commitment to observe G-d's
will, he focuses on the greater purpose common to all mitzvos and
not on the particular details of the individual mitzvos. 
For this reason, he sees the Jewish people's answer as expressing
an undifferentiated commitment. By saying "Yes" to both the
positive and negative commandments, they demonstrated an
unbounded commitment to fulfill G-d's will. 
The Era of the Redemption: A Synthesis of Both Approaches
The ultimate goal of our divine service is a combination of these
two approaches, for each has its distinctive merits.
This synthesis will reach its apex in the Era of the Redemption,
when "Mashiach will motivate the righteous to turn to G-d in
The divine service of "the righteous," which is directed
towards drawing down G-dliness within the context of the
natural order, will be permeated by the all-encompassing
commitment evoked by teshuvah.
Since we are living in the time immediately before the coming of
Mashiach, we can appreciate a foretaste of this synthesis in our
Through these efforts, we will hasten the coming of the time when
we will achieve the ultimate expression of both these approaches,
with the coming of Mashiach. May this take place in the immediate
Adapted from Likkutei Sichos,
Vol. VI, Parshas Yisro,
p. 119 ff.
- (Back to text) Shmos 20:1.
- (Back to text) Mechilta on this verse.
- (Back to text) Generally, the word leimor is understood as "to convey";
i.e., G-d gave Moshe a commandment to convey to the
Jewish people as a whole (see Rashi on Shmos 19:2 and
elsewhere) However, this meaning is not appropriate for
the present verse, because all the Jews were present at
Mount Sinai. Indeed, our Sages (Shmos Rabbah 28:6) teach
that even the souls of the Jews of all future generations
were present at the Giving of the Torah.
- (Back to text) Shmos 20:15.
- (Back to text) Mechilta on the above verse.
- (Back to text) Rosh HaShanah 26a.
- (Back to text) See Rashi on Chullin 49a; Seder HaDoros.
- (Back to text) Seder HaDoros; the Rambam's Introduction to the Mishneh
- (Back to text) Avos deRabbi Nasan 6:2.
- (Back to text) The conclusion of Tractate Makkos.
- (Back to text) Michah 3:12.
- (Back to text) Zechariah 8:4.
- (Back to text) See also Teshuvos U'Biurim BeShas, Vol. I, sec 16, on the
halachic ramifications of the divergent directions taken
by Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yishmael in their divine
- (Back to text) These two considerations are reflected in the blessing we
recite before the performance of a mitzvah, in which we
praise G-d Who "sanctified us with His commandments"
(reflecting our general commitment to fulfill G-d's will)
"and commanded us to..." [observe this particular
- (Back to text) The emphasis on the fundamental connection to G-d
established through the mitzvos is reflected in the
parting words of Rabbi Akiva to his students at the time
of his martyrdom (Berachos 61b). As he explained, every
aspect of his life had been an expression of his striving
to fulfill the command (Devarim 6:5) to "love G-d with...
all your soul."
- (Back to text) Saying "Yes" to the negative commandments also hints at
the possibility of transforming the negative dimensions
of our experience, as practiced in the divine service of
- (Back to text) Likkutei Torah, Shemini Atzeres 92b; Zohar III, 153b.