Happiness Which We Have Earned
Adapted from Likkutei Sichos, Vol. XIV, Simchas Torah
Shavuos and Simchas Torah: Two Approaches
Shavuos and Simchas Torah are both devoted to deepening our appreciation of the Torah.
The celebrations of these two holidays, however, differ dramatically.
Shavuos is characterized by a sober increase in Torah study.
In many communities it is customary to remain awake through the first night of Shavuos to study the Torah. In contrast, the celebration of Simchas Torah does not typically involve increased Torah study. It is, instead, marked by unbounded happiness, singing, and dancing.
These different customs echo a more fundamental difference in the divine service of these two holidays.
Shavuos, as "the season of the Giving of our Torah,"  focuses on the Giver of the Torah. Simchas Torah, by contrast, celebrating the completion of the annual cycle of Torah readings, demonstrates how man can succeed in his Torah study through his own efforts. Thus it is appended to Sukkos, "the season of our rejoicing."
G-d's Torah, and Man's Striving to Possess It
The contrast between these two perspectives on our relationship with the Torah can be illustrated by examples from Torah law. Our Sages  state that a person who is ritually impure is permitted to study Torah since the Torah itself cannot be rendered impure. "My words (i.e., the Torah) are like fire,"  and "just as fire cannot become impure, likewise the words of Torah cannot contract impurity."
The Torah remains G-d's word even when spoken by an impure individual; his impurity does not detract from the Torah's fundamental G-dly nature.
Conversely, our Sages  state that a Torah scholar is allowed to forego the honor due to him.
One might suppose that since any token of respect should relate to his Torah knowledge and not to himself, he should not be allowed to forego it. In fact, however, this ruling of the Sages implies that his knowledge is considered his own to the point where he can choose either to accept or reject such honor. 
These two points of halachah reflect different perspectives.
The first perceives the Torah as a mirror of G-d's utterly transcendent infinity. The second perspective focuses on Torah as internalized by man and points to the ways in which his thinking and conduct can be modified thereby. 
No Longer the "Bread of Shame"
The second approach is more closely related to joy.
Our Sages state:  "A person prefers one kav  of his own over nine that belong to someone else." He foregoes the greater quantity because of the fulfillment he feels when he receives something that he has worked for and earned.
From the perspective of G-d, the Giver of the Torah, the Torah completely bypasses the confines of man's limited understanding.
However, when a person relates to the Torah from this perspective, he experiences it as the "bread of shame"  - alms received as charity, a gift that he has not earned. If, instead, he works hard at studying Torah so that he can thoroughly grasp it, the satisfaction he feels corresponds directly to the effort he has expended.
This is why Simchas Torah is celebrated with such joy.
Our efforts to comprehend the Torah throughout the entire year are now consummated - surely a cause for unlimited rejoicing.
The Distinctive Quality of the Second Tablets
The above-described differences between Shavuos and Simchas Torah also relate to another explanation for the celebration of Simchas Torah,  namely, that it commemorates the giving of the second tablets on Yom Kippur. 
Extolling the first tablets, our Sages state  that had they not been broken, "The Torah would never have been forgotten by the Jewish people...and no other nation would ever have ruled over them."
The second tablets are significant for a different reason.
Our Sages explain  that with the first tablets only the Five Books of Moshe and the Book of Yehoshua were revealed. The revelation of the second tablets, however, comprised the entire Oral Law, the realm of Torah that allows for man's creative input. With the giving of the second tablets, therefore, fruitful effort in Torah study became necessary and possible. 
Accepting the Torah with Teshuvah
The first tablets were given to the Jewish people when, in the words of our Sages,  "Their impurity had ceased," and they were on the level of tzaddikim, "righteous men."
The second tablets, by contrast, were given after they had committed the sin of the Golden Calf and repented. At this point their divine service followed the path of baalei teshuvah, those who turn to G-d in repentance.
Unlike the tzaddik, the baal teshuvah must rely primarily on his own efforts.
The divine service of the tzaddik is aided by the natural tendency within man to act righteously.
Since this tendency is weakened through sin, the baal teshuvah has to summon up inner energies in his striving to develop a new bond with G-d.
Beginning Creation Anew
Immediately after completing the year-long Reading of the Torah we start again:  "In the beginning, G-d created the heavens and the earth."
This reading reminds us of man's input in Torah, for it is through our efforts in the study and practice of Torah that we become G-d's partners in creation,  transforming the world into a dwelling place for Him. 
The ultimate expression of the world as G-d's dwelling place will come in the Era of the Redemption, when we will merit the revelation of "the new heaven and the new earth which I (G-d) will make." 
May this take place in the immediate future.
- (Back to text) The festival liturgy.
- (Back to text) Berachos 22a.
- (Back to text) Yirmeyahu 23:29.
- (Back to text) Kiddushin 32a.
- (Back to text) Avodah Zarah 19a states that when a Torah scholar has
completed his study of a subject, the Torah concepts
which he has grasped are considered "his own, and
identified with his name."
- (Back to text) This, after all, is the purpose of Torah study - to
upgrade one's thought processes and ultimately, one's
actual conduct; as our Sages declare (Berachos 17a):
"The ultimate goal of wisdom is teshuvah and good deeds."
- (Back to text) Bava Metzia 38a.
- (Back to text) A Talmudic measure.
- (Back to text) Cf. Jerusalem Talmud, Orlah 1:3.
- (Back to text) See Or HaTorah on Shemini Atzeres, p. 1779; Sefer
HaMaamarim 5689, p. 56ff.
- (Back to text) See Rashi on Taanis 26b. The celebration is, however,
delayed from Yom Kippur until Simchas Torah in order to
allow the powerful spiritual influences aroused on Yom
Kippur to be integrated within the Jewish people.
- (Back to text) Eruvin 54a.
- (Back to text) Nedarim 22b.
- (Back to text) Further to the concept of human achievement: Rashi
comments on Shmos 34:1 that whereas the first tablets
were "the work of G-d," the second tablets were hewn out
- (Back to text) Shabbos 146a.
- (Back to text) Bereishis 1:1.
17 . See Shabbos 11a, 119b; see also Likkutei Sichos, Vol. XV,
- (Back to text) Cf. Midrash Tanchuma, Parshas Bechukosai, sec. 3; Tanya,
chs. 33 and 36.
- (Back to text) Yeshayahu 66:22.